Rails 5: A lot more than ActionCable!

Parth Modi
Parth Modi
12 Apr, 20175 min read
Rails 5: A lot more than ActionCable!

Rails 5 and 5.1 brings some awesome features such as Attributes API, API mode, ActionCable, Turbolinks, and much more!

Setting up rails 5 along-with current version of rails such as Rails 4 is explained in the first part of Rails 5 series 4 features to watch for in Rails 5.1 beta.

Attributes API:

If you are working with rails, you definitely used attr_accessor at some point. It’s pretty useful functionality which defines getter and setter for an attribute which might not exist in the database. For simple use-cases, this was enough, but it lacked some features, such as assigning the type of attributes, setting default values, validations, etc.

I preferred not to use attr_accessor inside my models but used them sparingly across PORO and Service objects, but this new API will change the way I work with virtual attributes in models.

Newly added attributes API allows many features such as:

  • Model Attributes doesn’t need to be backed by a database.
  • You can override type defined by the active record, to some another type or custom types.
  • Default values can be assigned for attributes.
  • If the attribute is backed by a database field, then you can query it by converting to SQL type with serialization.

This API provides a cleaner approach to assign predefined types or custom types and default values to virtual attributes. To understand how it works, let’s look at how active record handles type casting to and from the database.

After submitting forms, AR (Active Record) casts the data received from form to appropriate database type before saving. When data is fetched from the database, it’s again typed cast and serialized accordingly. One important thing to notice here is that AR automatically handles type casting without needing you to specify whether it is an integer, string or some other type.

The Attributes API overrides this automatic type detection with user-specified type.

For example, let’s create a User model with the following database fields:

create_table :users do |t|
t.string :first_name
t.string :last_name
t.integer :age
t.timestamps
end

And in model define name as a virtual attribute with new Attribute API, and full_name with the older approach.

class User < ApplicationRecord
  # rails 4 way of defining virtual attribute
  attr_accessor :full_name
  
  # new rails 5 way of defining virtual attributes with datatype and default values
  attribute :name, :string, default: -> {  "No Name" }
  attribute :age, :float, default: 99

  before_save :assign_name
  before_save :assign_full_name
   
  def assign_name
    self.name = "#{first_name} #{last_name}"
  end
  def assign_full_name
    self.full_name = "#{first_name} #{last_name}"
  end
end

In rails console: 
irb:> User.new
=> #<User id: nil, first_name: nil, last_name: nil, age: "99", created_at: nil, updated_at: nil, name: "No Name">
irb:> u = User.new(first_name: "Harry", last_name: "Potter")
irb:> u.save
irb:> u
=> #<User id: 1, first_name: "Harry", last_name: "Potter", age: 99.0, created_at: "2017-03-29 16:30:16", updated_at: "2017-03-29 16:30:16", name: "Harry Potter">

One important change is the ability to give default values. name and age , both field can be initialized with default values and if no values are given, these default values can be used.

Another useful change is the ability to override the default database field type. age is integer type value, and can be type casted to float .

Attributes API documentation would be good place to refer and understand how Attributes API can be used.

The go-rails screencast discusses very nicely how attributes api can be utilized in different scenarios.

. . .

API mode:

I have been using rails 4 for API — only applications and this feature will be definitely useful. By default, rails consist of assets pipeline, lots of middlewares and unnecessary overhead that is not required for API only applications.

Removing all those unnecessary overhead makes rails applications very lightweight and faster. Adding rails — api gem helped getting rid of some middlewares, asset-pipeline, some specific controller modules, etc. This gem provides support for both creating new rails api only applications or migrating existing rails application to api only application. It let’s you choose specific middlewares to use, which controller modules to use.

Rails 5 merges rails-api gem into rails, and provides the option to create api-only application with the following command:

rails new my-app --api

You can checkout rails-api or find various guides for using rails in API mode.

. . .

Of course, ‘The ActionCable’:

ActionCable is most widely discussed the feature of Rails 5. After seeing lots of tutorials with a title similar to ‘Let’s create a chat application with Ruby on Rails ActionCable’, I lost the desire to create some random chat app which does nothing significant.

But then I came across this awesome talk ‘Not just another chat app' by “Jesse Wolgamott” where he nicely explains the history of action cable and what can be done with action-cable apart from just real-time chat application.

In short, ActionCable can be used for:

  • Live Chat
  • Streaming of data
  • Collaboration Tools — such as when multiple users are working on the same document
  • Anywhere when you want to push realtime data and content to users

However, If content doesn’t need to be updated almost instantly then Action Cable can be overkill. Maintaining live connections in ActionCable consumes resources, and many of the times simple polling can be a lot more beneficial.

What’s new in Routes?

Listing Routes:

Most frequently used command for me was `rake routes`, and finding a specific route from a long list of routes was easy with:

rake routes | grep users

This can be replaced with:

# this shows all routes for users_controller
rake routes -c users# however, for grep-like pattern matching, you can use
rake routes -g users

TL;DR:

Rails 5 brings WebSockets to support with ActionCable, Turbolinks 5, API mode for backend-specific rails applications and awesome Attributes API.

This is second part of two part series on new significant features in rails 5.1 beta and 5. To dive deep into rails 5 specific features, checkout first part of article series 4 features to watch for in Rails 5.1 beta!

Feel free to talk about the features you are excited about in Rails 5 and share ❤ the article and check out other articles below:

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